贵州医科大学学报

1982, (02) 54-69

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贵州省食肉动物的钩口线虫类和锡兰钩虫的生活史研究
THE ANCYLOSTOMAS OF CARNIVORA IN GUIZHOU PROVINCE AND STUDIES ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF ANCYLOSTOMA CEYLANICUM LOOSS 1911

庄生一;金大雄;
Pestgraduate of Parasitology: Zhuang Sheng-yi Advisor: Professor Chin Ta-hsiung

摘要(Abstract):

<正> 钩口科线虫寄生在多种哺乳动物消化道内,有的种类可寄生于人体,引起慢性缺铁性贫血和消化道功能紊乱。贵州省食肉动物的钩口线虫,过去曾有报道。为了对其作进一步研究和整理,作者鉴定了七种宿主体内的557条钩虫成虫标本,共四属七种钩口线虫。其中两属两种系贵州省的新记录。锡兰钩虫(Ancylostoma ceylanicum,Looss,1911)分布在亚洲东部及南部、澳洲、美洲、南非等的许多国家和地区,寄生于狗、猫、豹猫、虎、豹等哺乳动物和人体内。一向认为锡兰钩虫仅偶尔寄生于人体,因而很少受到重视。近年来在印度、印度尼
The author examined 557 adult hookworms collected from dogs, cats, Felis bengalensis, tigers, masked civet, foxes and humans in Guizhou Province and identified seven species. These are Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus, Uncinaria stenocephala, and Arthrocephaloides longispiculum. Among them, A. tubaeforme and A. longispiculum are new records of Guizhou Province. In addition, A. caninum of tiger, U. stenocephala of fox, and A. longispiculum of Felis bengalensis are new records of hosts in China. Previous records showed that men are suitable hosts of A. ceylanicum and are highly susceptible. The author examined 42 dogs from Huishui Xian, Guizhou and found the infection rate of A. ceylanicum was as high as 95.24%. Since this nematode has already been proved to be zoonotic, we should pay more attention to worm. Therefore, a study on the life history of A. ceylanicum is of prime importance both in theory and in practice. Yet it has not been carried out in China. Infective larvae cultured from eg~s obtained from Ao ceylanicum of dogs are used.to infect 2 kittens by oral route. The eggs passed in feces of the kittens were cultured in order to study the free living period of the hookworm. The size of?the eggs of .4. c?ylanicum ((52.33564.40)55/93:+2.42x(32.20-3Z.57) 34.85+20). (1~) is smaller than that of 21. caninum and the outline of the eggs (lengths width 1.61_0.09: 1 ) tends: to be more spherical than that of the latter. Hatching of theeggs and first and second ecdysis of the larvae took place in 19-36 hr. 36' 60 hr, and 72-102 hr, respectively after cultivation at 28~C. In determining the migratory route and developmental pattern of the parasi- tic stages ~)f A. ceytam'cum in the definitive host, 11 hookworm-free kittcna were infected percutaneously with 200 infective larvae each.' The kittens were killed at various intervals between' 12th hr. and 18th :day. Skin, lungs,: tra- chea. esophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, muscles, diaphragm,thoracic cavi ty and abdominal cavity were examined for larvae or adults. The third stage larvae reached the lungs, trachea and esophagus, stomach, intestine in hr. 12- day 3, day 2--7, day 3--7 and day 3 after infection respectively. In about day 5--7 after infection the third ecdysis of larvae was completed in the intestine, and in about day 9--11 the final ecdysis accomplished. The imma- ture adults grew markedly in size and the reproductive system perfected gradual- ly. The eggs appeared in the feces as early as day 18 after infection, and the egg out put raised day by day to the top point after day 23 of infection and then remained relatively stable. The whole life cycle of A. ceylanicum required 21--28 days in our experiment. It is known that the infective larvae of hookworm usually do not shed their sheeths until they invade the hosts. However, the author observed that 40% of the infective larvae of A. ceylanicum had already shed their sheeths at day 9 in the culture before the invasion of their hosts. Such high sheding rate ap- pears to be outstanding from that of other hookworms known. The paper discribes in detail the morphological characters of every larval stage, development of the gonads, developmental course of cephalic glands and esophagus valves of A. ceylanicum and with a preliminary discussion on the de- velopmental pattern and certain biology of the worm.

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作者(Author): 庄生一;金大雄;
Pestgraduate of Parasitology: Zhuang Sheng-yi Advisor: Professor Chin Ta-hsiung

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