贵州医科大学学报

2015, v.40;No.182(11) 1179-1183

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贵州省2010-2014年燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒防治效果分析
Analysis of Control and Treatment Effect on Coal-Burning Endemic Fluorosis in Guizhou Province from 2010 to 2014

高静;李达圣;安冬;梁音;张锐智;叶红兵;姚丹成;张伯友;张念恒;
GAO Jing;LI Dasheng;AN Dong;LIANG Yin;ZHANG Ruizhi;YE Hongbing;YAO Dancheng;ZHANG Boyou;ZHANG Nianheng;Institute of Endemic Disease Control,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guizhou Province;

摘要(Abstract):

目的:分析贵州省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒(简称燃煤型氟中毒)监测县连续5年监测结果,评价燃煤型氟中毒综合治理防治措施落实效果。方法:按照国家统一方案,每5年1个监测周期,每年在七星关区、大方县、黔西县、仁怀市、普定县、普安县6个监测县的18个固定监测村及村小学、30个非固定监测村开展儿童氟斑牙和尿氟监测调查;入户每村调查10户,动态监测炉灶使用情况及与玉米辣椒相关健康生活行为方式;监测周期第1年在监测村进行成人X线氟骨症拍片检查。结果:X线检查发现2010年氟骨症总体检出率为51.48%,8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率呈明显下降趋势(P<0.01),氟斑牙指数从2010年的1.27下降到2014年的0.84,5年来检出的氟斑牙以极轻和轻度为主;2014年儿童尿氟低于2010年(P<0.01),使用铁炉、电炊具为主,电热器使用户数较少,炉灶正确使用户数逐年提高,2014年监测居民炉灶正确使用率达到100%;监测村居民玉米、辣椒正确干燥、保管、食前淘洗等行为指标均达到88.89%以上。结论:监测县较好的落实了防治措施,健康生活行为方式较稳固形成,总体病情逐渐减轻。
Objective: To analyze five consecutive years control and treatment effect in coal-burning endemic fluorosis area in Guizhou province,to evaluate the effects of prevention and control measures.Methods: To observe dynamic monitoring results and trends of dental fluorosis in accordance with the national surveillance scheme,10 households per village were investigated from 18 stabilized villages,30 variable villages in 6 monitoring counties to observe the dynamic monitoring results and trends. Monitoring stove using condition and corn cooking method; analyzing crippling fluorosis X-ray results.Results: X-ray results showed that detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 51. 48% in 2010. It showed a significant decline in the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 ~ 12 years old,and dental fluorosis index were decreased from 1. 27 in 2010 to 0. 84 in 2014( P < 0. 01). There was a statistically significant difference that children's urine fluoride was dropped( P < 0. 01). There were a few electric heater users but iron stoves and electric cooker users increased year by year. The correct usage rate of installed improved stoves increased too. The correct behavior rate of drying,storing and washing corn and pepper before eating were 88. 89%. Conclusion: Monitoring counties implement the prevention and control measures preferably. A healthy life behavior is relatively solidly formed and the overall condition gradually reduces.

关键词(KeyWords): 燃煤污染型;地方性氟中毒;综合治理;监测;防治效果
coal-burning;fluorosis;comprehensive treatment;monitoring;control effects

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基金项目(Foundation): 贵州省“2011协同创新中心”支助项目[黔教合协同创新中心(2014)06]

作者(Author): 高静;李达圣;安冬;梁音;张锐智;叶红兵;姚丹成;张伯友;张念恒;
GAO Jing;LI Dasheng;AN Dong;LIANG Yin;ZHANG Ruizhi;YE Hongbing;YAO Dancheng;ZHANG Boyou;ZHANG Nianheng;Institute of Endemic Disease Control,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guizhou Province;

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